This section addresses some of the key concerns Canadians face when returning to Canada. These are serious topics and the choices that you make can have significant financial repercussions for the short and long term. As a result, I highly recommend careful research and planning for your savings and investments as you prepare to move back as your decisions and actions can have significant tax implications for the country you are leaving and for what happens in Canada after you return. Some key concerns:
Let's clear up the most pressing and concerning questions Canadians have when returning to Canada:
"Do I pay taxes in Canada on my money (savings, investments, etc.) that I bring back with me when I move back to Canada? Or savings or investments I leave outside of Canada?"
The short answer: No.
The longer answer - part 1: Moving money to Canada: If you meet the following conditions you may transfer to Canada as much money as you wish before or at the time of your move and these funds will not be subject to taxes in Canada:
In summary, if you meet the general criteria noted above you will not be taxed by the Canadian government on funds you bring into Canada or send to Canada before or at the time of your move back.
The longer answer - part 2: For money and investments you leave outside of Canada when you return, whether that is to be repatriated 1 month, 1 year, or 10 years later you will not be taxed on the benchmark value of the money and investments as of the day before you arrive in Canada to become tax resident here. This is important:
Only gains earned from the day you arrive in Canada forward in time, on your savings (interest earned), investments (dividends, realized profits from selling them), or overseas business profits are taxable in Canada. Not on any gains made before you move back or on the value of your assets at the time you move back.
One typical concern returning Canadians have is the "CDN $10,000" limit that is clearly noted on all airline information and Canadian government web sites.
Please note that this CDN $10,000 limit is for having to report what you are physically bringing into Canada through an airport or land border crossing, not any amounts you transfer electronically, which has no limit and no reporting requirement at the border. Anything amount over CDN $10,000 in physical cash, gold coins/bullion, raw diamonds, or other liquid physical forms of financial currency or assets (such as a physical bank draft payable to yourself that you bring with you) must be reported at the time you enter Canada.
You will not need to pay tax on what you have physically with you that is cumulatively over the CDN $10,000 limit but you must report how much you are bringing if you are over that limit. This rule is for currency controls and money laundering reasons, not specifically for tax reasons.
One returning Canadian brought CDN $350,000 in gold bars with him and his family on the plane to Canada from Dubai. While this is completely acceptable legally and is not taxed in Canada, I do not recommend bringing these amounts with you for security reasons. There are money, bullion, and jewellery shipping companies which specialize in securely shipping high value such amounts. Please use one of these services if you are bringing large values of physical assets. The risk of theft is too high!
"But nobody will know. We will keep it a secret and hide it in our clothes!"
No, just no. I recommend you do not bring very high value amounts of cash, gold, jewellery, or other liquid or easily liquidated items with you. Ship them securely.
One very typical concern Canadians in the U.S., UK, Australia, Hong Kong, and UAE in particular have is the selling of their overseas property when they return. The cleanest and easiest situation is to have your overseas real estate sold before you return and the funds from the sale sitting in your foreign bank account at least a week before you depart for Canada.
Then you can transfer this money to Canada before you leave or when you come back and it is clearly yours at the time of your return. No later tax questions of any kind with the government of the country you are in now or with the Canadian government after you return.
But what if you haven't sold it yet? Or you want to keep it for awhile before selling, due to market conditions at the time, or as an investment to sell much later?
If you are in the process of selling a property abroad and expect it to sell in the near future (within 3 months and within the same tax year) you are fine from the perspective of taxes in Canada. Your property is already listed for sale at a price that is clearly publicly available. There is no taxable "gain" if it sells at or around the asking price.
However, what if you plan to list the property for sale in the more distant future?
The key in this case is to have a solid third-party valuation done of your overseas real estate and on all your overseas investments at the time your return. This becomes your benchmark valuation for when you start paying taxes in Canada. Any capital gains, rental income, interest income, dividends, or profits you earn starting from the day you return to Canada onwards become taxable in Canada.
To be clear and stated again: You pay tax in Canada only on all forms of income earned from the day you return to Canada onwards in time. Having a clear valuation of your overseas assets done very close to, or on the day you return to Canada, will be very useful later as a benchmark of the value of your assets at that time from which to calculate and prove the gains you earned after moving back.
Side note: Do I seem to be repeating myself again and again in what I wrote in the sections above? Yes, I am. Why? Because this is the #1 question I receive from expatriate Canadians. I have literally answered this perhaps 1000 times. There is a narrative of fear that is shared among expatriates that "Canada will tax all the money you made in ______ [country] when you move back!!!!" It is usually shared in-person with wide eyes, a hushed tone, and an urgent fear-inducing body posture or on the Internet with lots of righteous, authority-driven wording.
And it is a lie.
So I repeat myself above to help cut through any fear you may be experiencing. Obtain clear documentation/proof of the value of the assets you have anywhere outside of Canada as of the time you move back. These assets will not be taxed in Canada when you move back.
(I hope the rest of your day is peaceful after reading this!)
Important: The guidance above is for the Canadian side of the tax equation - taxes that you do or don't pay in Canada to the Canadian government in relation to your move back to Canada.
However, you must plan carefully for any tax implications in the country you are leaving! In particular, the IRS in the United States can levy huge penalties if you do not plan your move carefully and file all the appropriate paperwork before you leave and when you do your first dual-filing tax return once you are back in Canada. Other countries have their own regulations, laws, and punitive penalties that you must prepare for!
Moving back from the U.S.? See the USA Resources section of this site for more information on taxes.
Final word of caution: Please be very proactive about researching and planning your exit taxes from the country you are in. Occasionally I get an email from someone who tells me I am wrong and that they paid, and everyone must pay, huge tax penalties. When I gently check in with them I immediately hear that they didn't do any tax planning and did no required paperwork when exiting the country they were leaving (sigh). The world is complicated, folks! Plan for it proactively for the country you are leaving in order to minimize any questions, hassles, and tax penalties later!
Bringing your vehicle into Canada with you from the U.S. will usually result in taxes in the form of GST/HST and possibly import duties. Vehicle imports are detailed more fully on the "Moving Back from the USA" resource page of this site and I recommend you visit the official riv.ca web site for full details on importing your American car into Canada when you return.
Note: You may not bring in normal vehicles of under 15 years of age from countries other than the U.S. There are very special exceptions (collector vehicles, for example, or vehicle older than 15 years of age), but normal current age vehicles may only be imported from the USA. And those older vehicles? The cost and process of shipping and getting them adapted and inspected for Canadian use can be VERY expensive. On reflection, only 1 or 2 of my clients have ever moved vehicles back to Canada from a country other than the U.S. It is just too expensive and administratively difficult!
Canada has tax treaties with many countries. If you pay taxes in another country that has a tax treaty with Canada you do not pay taxes in Canada on that same income or you get a tax credit in Canada on the taxes you pay abroad. You will never be double-taxed when there is solid tax treaty in effect. If there is a big difference between the lower taxes you pay abroad and the higher tax levels you would have to pay in Canada have care in maintaining your Canadian non-resident status until you are ready to resume residence in Canada so as to minimize your tax levels.
List of countries Canada has tax treaties with: Tax Treaties in Effect .
Before they go overseas, or during their time living abroad, many Canadians wonder if they should seek a CRA declaration stating they are non-resident (Form NR73). I do not normally recommend doing so. Why not? Well, for one thing, you are now opening a "case file" in their system where a file does not need to be opened. If you cut all reasonable residential ties to Canada and have clear proof of living and working outside of Canada you are non-resident for tax purposes in Canada. Why bring CRA attention to your tax situation unnecessarily? While I am not claiming anything really bad will happen by doing so, does it make intuitive sense that no "case file" is better than having one? I hope so.
Here is an analogy to help make clear why CRA "approval" of your non-resident status is perhaps not desirable:
The CRA is a hungry lion. A real lion is biologically designed to hunt and consume food when it is hungry. Similarly, the CRA is designed to capture taxes. And as all governments in the world are hungry for tax revenues, the CRA is hungry for any tax revenue it can find.
You are a gazelle.
When you ask the CRA to not tax you, you are in effect a gazelle going up to a hungry lion, sitting down in front of it, and asking it: "Please Mrs. Lion (female lions do all the hard work), I would like you to not eat me. In fact, I would like you to declare to the whole savanna that you agree not to eat me."
Well, the lion is not designed to "not eat you". It is not thinking about "not eating you". It is hungry and thinking about eating you!
Similarly, asking the CRA to do something that is literally against its mission, purpose, and DNA may get you what you want, but it will not be happy doing so.
In summary, can you imagine how a hungry female lion feels having to "not eat you" and watch you walking away? At the very least, it might feel mildly annoyed. At worst, seriously annoyed. If it ever sees you on the savanna again, it will remember you as the one who got away and irritated it with a silly request to not eat you, when you really would have tasted rather yummy and filled the hole in its stomach. Is that what a gazelle wants a lion to feel about it?
Is that what you want the CRA to feel about you?
A quote from a Canadian abroad who chose to ask the CRA to declare him non-resident:
"I should not have asked the CRA to declare me non-resident. They hounded me for two years afterwards, despite me proving clearly that I was living in ______. I finally got through to them and they grudgingly admitted I was clearly non-resident."
In summary: When you leave Canada do so with a clear ending of your residential ties to Canada. See earlier on this page for a list of the key ties to cut. The small percentage of Canadians who run into problems with the CRA? They did not cut ties either because did not know they had to or by willfully trying to "have their cake and eat it too" - they tried to have Canadian benefits while not paying taxes in Canada. No. Just no. Stay in full integrity. If you leave Canada to live abroad and not pay taxes here then cut all key Canadian residential ties.
For most Canadians returning from the U.S. who have significant assets it is really important to research tax rules and regulations carefully. If you don't have the inclination to do this, engaging my support and/or the support of a professional cross-border tax accountant in Canada makes sense and save you a lot of potential time, hassle, stress, and money. Knowing the tax rules and regulations is particularly important for the first year after you return when almost all returning Canadians have to start filing tax returns in both countries (called "dual filing").
If you are returning from Hong Kong, the UK, the UAE, Australia, etc., engaging the support of an international tax accountant is usually not needed unless you have very complicated personal investments, trusts, business assets, etc.
Returning from the U.S.? Here are some areas that can cause you complications and result in costly tax payments and penalties. Getting proactive professional support really makes sense in these cases!:
I have met and spoken with several tax accountants and tax lawyers across Canada who I can recommend and for whom I have received feedback from happy clients that we have in common. Please note that I receive no commission or other benefit from these recommendations so you can trust that these are great professionals to work with.
The following link to the "Professionals" resource page on this web site:
It used to be the case that simply having a bank account and doing banking in Canada could trigger you being considered resident here, with resulting tax implications. This is no longer the case. Financial assets of all kinds move around the world daily in millions of different transactions. Simply having a bank account or other financial investments in Canada (such as a "parked" RRSP) will not impact your non-resident tax status.
Important: When you leave Canada do not change your bank account, credit card, or other addresses "to my mom's house." This may seem convenient but your are breaking tax law (banks must have accurate tax domicile information) and you are making it appear you live in Canada! Change your bank and any other financially and tax-related address to your U.S. or overseas address. Didn't do this when you left? Do it now. Seriously, it is worth doing to protect your non-resident status.
What about a credit card? You can keep a Canadian credit card but use it only sparingly and keep it really just for the sake of your credit history in Canada staying active. This is because a credit card, if used during your vacations here and when you are overseas, can add to you appearing to have more than an "arms-length" tie to Canada. In other words, using a Canadian credit card regularly starts to make you look like a resident of Canada. Not a major tie by itself but in combination with other ties it starts to paint a picture you may not want painted.
Can you open a bank account from abroad?
If you do not have a bank account in Canada and wish to open one while you are physically abroad, you can now do so more easily. The Royal Bank of Canada (RBC), TD, and CIBC for example, now allow you to open a "deposit only" bank account just before you come to Canada (not if you plan to arrive more than 90 days from the time you open the account). I have also heard that TD Bank now allows Canadians living in the U.S. to open an account remotely.
However, some of my clients are reporting that other Canadian banks and trust companies do not allow you to set up an account unless you are physically present in Canada. One client, for example, got nowhere with ScotiaBank, who told her that they required physical presence at a branch in Canada to set up an account.
Your experience with Canadian banks while you are non-resident can vary until you are physically present in Canada which is when it is easiest to open an account or confirm one. The lesson: Be persistent when contacting a Canadian bank from abroad as some representatives may not understand that you may be able to access "newcomer" packages or be able to open a new account because you are a Canadian citizen.
Note: If you are opening a bank account from the U.S. there can be much easier bank opening options than from other countries. Please see the USA Resources on this web site for more details.
A useful and illustrative story from a client in 2021:
"You may recall we were having issues setting up an account in Canada with the HSBC and Royal Bank. HSBC [Oman] wanted exorbitant fees and commissions and the Royal Bank, well, they just did not respond to any of our emails!
Good news, my niece contracted her local branch of the CIBC Bank and I was fortunate to set up a “deposit only” account with them in three business days. Besides the standard online applications and required two pieces of photo ID, all I needed was access to a Canadian cell phone to receive activation codes, which my niece was kind enough to allow her number to be used. The process was both seamless and gratifying, nice to do business with a bank that truly wants my business.
Thank you, Bill M., for sharing your experience!
RBC's process for opening new bank accounts from outside Canada
Here are the steps:
I am planning on moving back to Canada from HK and I was able to go to the HSBC international center at their main branch and they assisted my setting up a Canadian bank account. It took about a month from start to finish but it is doable.
Thank you, Catherine H. for sharing your experience!
Opening a bank account in Canada while visiting, with a foreign address
Yes! As long as you have appropriate forms of personal identification you can open a bank account in Canada while visiting Canada, using a foreign address for the account. In fact, this is the easiest and best way to open an "unrestricted" bank account that you can use while in Canada or while you are abroad! An experience shared with me:
I was able to open a joint account with my husband (US citizen) using our current US address. Granted, we did have to open the account in person, but we just arranged this when we were on holiday in Ottawa. There was absolutely no hesitation at all from TD Canada Trust and they knew we didn't have a Canadian address upfront. My impression was they didn't care, as long as we had the appropriate identification. I have even changed my US address, and again, no issues, I just had to call in the new address.
"Can we keep our U.S./overseas bank accounts when we move back to Canada?"
This is a common question. The answer is "yes".
There is no legal reason from Canada's perspective as to why you can't keep a U.S. or other country bank account. Most Canadians returning from the U.S. keep at least one bank account there.
Other countries may not allow you to keep your bank account when you leave their country and become resident in Canada. Be sure to check on their regulations regarding bank accounts for the country you are leaving.
Please share your ideas, considerations, and experiences relating to taxes, accounting, and banking. I will post them here as help for others. Along with a credit to you will be a big "Thank you!" on behalf of the many people you will be helping!
Latest update to this page: May 2022.